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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 822; doi:10.3390/nu9080822

Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

1
Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
2
Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
3
Department of Nutritional Science, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 1568502, Japan
4
Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
5
Department of Gerontology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
6
Department of Health Behavior and Health Systems, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Dr., Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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Abstract

The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1) Atkins; (2) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); (3) Glycemic-Index; (4) Mediterranean; (5) Ornish; (6) Paleolithic; and (7) Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one-year) weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrates; protein; body composition; obesity; overweight carbohydrates; protein; body composition; obesity; overweight
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anton, S.D.; Hida, A.; Heekin, K.; Sowalsky, K.; Karabetian, C.; Mutchie, H.; Leeuwenburgh, C.; Manini, T.M.; Barnett, T.E. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials. Nutrients 2017, 9, 822.

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