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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 822; doi:10.3390/nu9080822 (registering DOI)

Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Department of Nutritional Science, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 1568502, Japan
Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Department of Gerontology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Department of Health Behavior and Health Systems, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Dr., Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1) Atkins; (2) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); (3) Glycemic-Index; (4) Mediterranean; (5) Ornish; (6) Paleolithic; and (7) Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one-year) weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrates; protein; body composition; obesity; overweight carbohydrates; protein; body composition; obesity; overweight

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Anton, S.D.; Hida, A.; Heekin, K.; Sowalsky, K.; Karabetian, C.; Mutchie, H.; Leeuwenburgh, C.; Manini, T.M.; Barnett, T.E. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials. Nutrients 2017, 9, 822.

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