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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 810; doi:10.3390/nu9080810

Food Sources of Sodium Intake in an Adult Mexican Population: A Sub-Analysis of the SALMEX Study

1
Sociomedical Research Department, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología ‘Ignacio Chávez’, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
2
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Mexico City 03940, Mexico
3
Nephrology and Mineral Metabolism Department, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
4
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Abstract

Excessive dietary sodium intake increases blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. In Western diets, the majority of dietary sodium comes from packaged and prepared foods (≈75%); however, in Mexico there is no available data on the main food sources of dietary sodium. The main objective of this study was to identify and characterize the major food sources of dietary sodium in a sample of the Mexican Salt and Mexico (SALMEX) cohort. Adult male and female participants of the SALMEX study who provided a complete and valid three-day food record during the baseline visit were included. Overall, 950 participants (mean age 38.6 ± 10.7 years) were analyzed to determine the total sodium contributed by the main food sources of sodium identified. Mean daily sodium intake estimated by three-day food records and 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 2647.2 ± 976.9 mg/day and 3497.2 ± 1393.0, in the overall population, respectively. Processed meat was the main contributor to daily sodium intake, representing 8% of total sodium intake per capita as measured by three-day food records. When savory bread (8%) and sweet bakery goods (8%) were considered together as bread products, these were the major contributor to daily sodium intake, accounting for the 16% of total sodium intake, followed by processed meat (8%), natural cheeses (5%), and tacos (5%). These results highlight the need for public health policies focused on reducing the sodium content of processed food in Mexico. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt; hypertension; processed foods salt; hypertension; processed foods
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Colin-Ramirez, E.; Espinosa-Cuevas, Á.; Miranda-Alatriste, P.V.; Tovar-Villegas, V.I.; Arcand, J.; Correa-Rotter, R. Food Sources of Sodium Intake in an Adult Mexican Population: A Sub-Analysis of the SALMEX Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 810.

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