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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 756; doi:10.3390/nu9070756

Effects of Consuming Xylitol on Gut Microbiota and Lipid Metabolism in Mice

Department of Preventive Environment and Nutrition, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, 3-18-15, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan
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Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Abstract

The sugar alcohol xylitol inhibits the growth of some bacterial species including Streptococcus mutans. It is used as a food additive to prevent caries. We previously showed that 1.5–4.0 g/kg body weight/day xylitol as part of a high-fat diet (HFD) improved lipid metabolism in rats. However, the effects of lower daily doses of dietary xylitol on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism are unclear. We examined the effect of 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day xylitol intake on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in mice. Bacterial compositions were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted real-time PCR. Luminal metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Plasma lipid parameters and glucose tolerance were examined. Dietary supplementation with low- or medium-dose xylitol (40 or 194 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively) significantly altered the fecal microbiota composition in mice. Relative to mice not fed xylitol, the addition of medium-dose xylitol to a regular and HFD in experimental mice reduced the abundance of fecal Bacteroidetes phylum and the genus Barnesiella, whereas the abundance of Firmicutes phylum and the genus Prevotella was increased in mice fed an HFD with medium-dose dietary xylitol. Body composition, hepatic and serum lipid parameters, oral glucose tolerance, and luminal metabolites were unaffected by xylitol consumption. In mice, 40 and 194 mg/kg body weight/day xylitol in the diet induced gradual changes in gut microbiota but not in lipid metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: xylitol; triglyceride; cholesterol; Streptococcus mutans; denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry (CE–MS); caries xylitol; triglyceride; cholesterol; Streptococcus mutans; denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry (CE–MS); caries
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Uebanso, T.; Kano, S.; Yoshimoto, A.; Naito, C.; Shimohata, T.; Mawatari, K.; Takahashi, A. Effects of Consuming Xylitol on Gut Microbiota and Lipid Metabolism in Mice. Nutrients 2017, 9, 756.

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