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Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 590; doi:10.3390/nu9060590

Fibre-Related Dietary Patterns: Socioeconomic Barriers to Adequate Fibre Intake in Polish Adolescents. A Short Report

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Sloneczna 45F, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
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Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract

There is no complete explanation for the association between socioeconomic status (SES), fibre, and whole diet described by dietary patterns. The aim of this short report was to increase the understanding of adolescent dietary patterns related to fibre in their social context. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 1176 adolescents aged 13–18 years from central and north-eastern Poland. The overall SES was composed of five single factors: place of residence, self-declared economic situation of family, self-declared economic situation of household, paternal and maternal education. The consumption frequency of nine dietary fibre sources was collected using Block’s questionnaire and was expressed in points. Fibre dietary patterns (DPs) were drawn by cluster analysis and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, and BMI were calculated. Three fibre-related DPs were identified: “High-fibre” (mean frequency of total fibre intake 22.7 points; range: 0–36), “Average-fibre” (17.7 points), “Low-fibre” (14.6 points). The “High-fibre” DP was characterized by a relatively higher frequency consumption of white bread, fruit, fruit or vegetable juices, potatoes, green salad and prepared vegetables, and a moderate frequency consumption of high-fibre or bran cereals and wholegrain bread compared to the “Low-fibre” DP. The “Average-fibre” DP was characterized by a relatively higher frequency consumption of wholegrain bread and high-fibre or bran cereals and a moderate frequency consumption of fruit, fruit or vegetable juices, green salad and prepared vegetables compared to the “Low-fibre” DP. Less likely to adhere to the “High-fibre” DP were adolescents with low SES (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39–0.77) or average SES (0.58, 95% CI: 0.41–0.81) in comparison with high SES (reference) as a result of elementary or secondary paternal or maternal education, rural residence, and lower household economic situation. Similar associations were found for the “Average-fibre” DP. Low and average socioeconomic status resulting from lower parents’ education, rural residence, and lower economic situation were inversely associated with achieving a relatively high fibre intake in Polish adolescents. Consuming single high-fibre foods was not sufficient to achieve a high-fibre diet in Polish adolescents. These data suggest that the consumption of a wide variety of dietary fibre sources—both relatively high-fibre and low-fibre foods—may help Polish adolescents in achieving a relatively high-fibre diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescents; fibre; dietary patterns; socioeconomic status; cluster analysis adolescents; fibre; dietary patterns; socioeconomic status; cluster analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Krusinska, B.; Kowalkowska, J.; Wadolowska, L.; Wuenstel, J.W.; Slowinska, M.A.; Niedzwiedzka, E. Fibre-Related Dietary Patterns: Socioeconomic Barriers to Adequate Fibre Intake in Polish Adolescents. A Short Report. Nutrients 2017, 9, 590.

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