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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 479; doi:10.3390/nu9050479

Multibehavioural Interventions with a Focus on Specific Energy Balance-Related Behaviours Can Affect Diet Quality in Preschoolers from Six European Countries: The ToyBox-Study

1
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), 69000 Lyon, France
4
Department of Human Biometry and Biomechanics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
5
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
6
Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital, 80337 München, Germany
7
GENUD Research Group, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
8
The Children’s Memorial Health Institute, 04-730 Warsaw, Poland
9
Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Varna, 9002 Varna, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract

The present study aimed to examine whether a multibehavioural intervention with a focus on specific energy balance-related behaviours can affect total diet quality and its four subcomponents in European preschoolers and to investigate if these intervention effects differed by socioeconomic status (SES). Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 year-olds (n = 4968) recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics and a food frequency questionnaire on their preschoolers’ diet. To assess intervention effects and differences by SES, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted. In contrast to no significant difference in total diet quality, in both the intervention and control group, the dietary quality and dietary equilibrium increased, with a larger increase in the intervention group (mean difference quality: +3.4%; mean difference equilibrium: +0.9%) compared to the control group (quality: +1.5%; equilibrium: +0.2%). SES was not a significant moderator for intervention effects on total diet quality, nor for the four subcomponents. This study indicates that multibehavioural interventions with a focus on specific energy balance-related behaviours in preschoolers not only affect those targeted behaviours, but can also have more generalized effects. The ToyBox-intervention effects were similar for both lower and high SES preschoolers. View Full-Text
Keywords: young children; diet quality; ToyBox-study; multibehavioural intervention; socioeconomic status young children; diet quality; ToyBox-study; multibehavioural intervention; socioeconomic status
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pinket, A.-S.; De Craemer, M.; Huybrechts, I.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Deforche, B.; Cardon, G.; Androutsos, O.; Koletzko, B.; Moreno, L.A.; Socha, P.; Iotova, V.; Manios, Y.; Van Lippevelde, W. Multibehavioural Interventions with a Focus on Specific Energy Balance-Related Behaviours Can Affect Diet Quality in Preschoolers from Six European Countries: The ToyBox-Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 479.

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