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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 458; doi:10.3390/nu9050458

Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study

1
Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS), 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
2
Department of Biomedicine–Biochemistry Unit, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
3
Nutrition & Metabolism, NOVA Medical School|Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1169-056 Lisbon, Portugal
4
LAQV/REQUIMTE–Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
5
LAQV/REQUIMTE-Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
6
Department of Community Medicine, Information and Health Decision Sciences (MEDCIDS), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
7
CESPU, Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal
8
Division of Paediatric Nutrition, Department of Paediatrics, Integrated Paediatric Hospital, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto. Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
9
Division of Paediatric Endocrinology, Department of Paediatrics, Integrated Paediatric Hospital, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto. Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
10
Department of Biomedicine-Anatomy Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
11
Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
12
Directorate-General of Education, 1049-005 Lisbon, Portugal
13
Obesity Research Group, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway
These authors contributed equally to this study.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract

The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6–12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children’s urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children’s eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC < 100 µg/L. No school canteen implemented the iodised salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine status; children; urinary iodine; salt iodisation; salt intake; monitoring; public health iodine status; children; urinary iodine; salt iodisation; salt intake; monitoring; public health
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Costa Leite, J.; Keating, E.; Pestana, D.; Cruz Fernandes, V.; Maia, M.L.; Norberto, S.; Pinto, E.; Moreira-Rosário, A.; Sintra, D.; Moreira, B.; Costa, A.; Silva, S.; Costa, V.; Martins, I.; Castro Mendes, F.; Queirós, P.; Peixoto, B.; Carlos Caldas, J.; Guerra, A.; Fontoura, M.; Leal, S.; Moreira, R.; Palmares Carvalho, I.; Matias Lima, R.; Martins, C.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Almeida, A.; Azevedo, L.; Calhau, C. Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 458.

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