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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 223; doi:10.3390/nu9030223

Antioxidants for Healthy Skin: The Emerging Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2

1
Department of Dermatology, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
2
Research and Clinical Center for Yusho and Dioxin, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
3
Division of Skin Surface Sensing, Department of Dermatology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Skin is the outermost part of the body and is, thus, inevitably exposed to UV rays and environmental pollutants. Oxidative stress by these hazardous factors accelerates skin aging and induces skin inflammation and carcinogenesis. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs) are chemical sensors that are abundantly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and mediate the production of reactive oxygen species. To neutralize or minimize oxidative stress, the keratinocytes also express nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2), which is a master switch for antioxidant signaling. Notably, there is fine-tuned crosstalk between AHR and NRF2, which mutually increase or decrease their activation states. Many NRF2-mediated antioxidant phytochemicals are capable of up- and downmodulating AHR signaling. The precise mechanisms by which these phytochemicals differentially affect the AHR and NRF2 system remain largely unknown and warrant future investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; reactive oxygen species; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2; phytochemicals antioxidants; reactive oxygen species; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2; phytochemicals
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Furue, M.; Uchi, H.; Mitoma, C.; Hashimoto-Hachiya, A.; Chiba, T.; Ito, T.; Nakahara, T.; Tsuji, G. Antioxidants for Healthy Skin: The Emerging Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2. Nutrients 2017, 9, 223.

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