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Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 112; doi:10.3390/nu9020112

Effects of Magnesium on the Phosphate Toxicity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Time for Intervention Studies

1
Department of Comprehensive Kidney Disease Research, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamada-oka, Suita 565-0871, Japan
2
Department of Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamada-oka, Suita 565-0871, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [481 KB, uploaded 6 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Magnesium, an essential mineral for human health, plays a pivotal role in the cardiovascular system. Epidemiological studies in the general population have found an association between lower dietary magnesium intake and an elevated risk of cardiovascular events. In addition, magnesium supplementation was shown to improve blood pressure control, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function. The relationship between magnesium and cardiovascular prognosis among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been increasingly investigated as it is becoming evident that magnesium can inhibit vascular calcification, a prominent risk of cardiovascular events, which commonly occurs in CKD patients. Cohort studies in patients receiving dialysis have shown a lower serum magnesium level as a significant risk for cardiovascular mortality. Interestingly, the cardiovascular mortality risk associated with hyperphosphatemia is alleviated among those with high serum magnesium levels, consistent with in vitro evidence that magnesium inhibits high-phosphate induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, a harmful effect of high phosphate on the progression of CKD is also attenuated among those with high serum magnesium levels. The potential usefulness of magnesium as a remedy for phosphate toxicity should be further explored by future intervention studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium; chronic kidney disease; dialysis; cardiovascular disease; phosphate toxicity; vascular calcification magnesium; chronic kidney disease; dialysis; cardiovascular disease; phosphate toxicity; vascular calcification
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Sakaguchi, Y.; Hamano, T.; Isaka, Y. Effects of Magnesium on the Phosphate Toxicity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Time for Intervention Studies. Nutrients 2017, 9, 112.

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