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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1292; doi:10.3390/nu9121292

Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract

The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary sugars; added sugars; free sugars; sucrose; carbohydrate; dietary intake; dietary guidelines; nutrition recommendations; population survey; New Zealand dietary sugars; added sugars; free sugars; sucrose; carbohydrate; dietary intake; dietary guidelines; nutrition recommendations; population survey; New Zealand
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kibblewhite, R.; Nettleton, A.; McLean, R.; Haszard, J.; Fleming, E.; Kruimer, D.; Te Morenga, L. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1292.

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