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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1289; doi:10.3390/nu9121289

Integrated Immunomodulatory Mechanisms through which Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Obese Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

1
Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Abstract

Obesity is a global health concern with rising prevalence that increases the risk of developing other chronic diseases. A causal link connecting overnutrition, the development of obesity and obesity-associated co-morbidities is visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, characterized by changes in the cellularity of various immune cell populations, altered production of inflammatory adipokines that sustain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation and, ultimately, dysregulated AT metabolic function. Therefore, dietary intervention strategies aimed to halt the progression of obese AT dysfunction through any of the aforementioned processes represent an important active area of research. In this connection, fish oil-derived dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been demonstrated to attenuate obese AT dysfunction through multiple mechanisms, ultimately affecting AT immune cellularity and function, adipokine production, and metabolic signaling pathways, all of which will be discussed herein. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; obesity; adipose tissue; immune cell infiltration; inflammation; adipokines; T cells; macrophages n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; obesity; adipose tissue; immune cell infiltration; inflammation; adipokines; T cells; macrophages
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liddle, D.M.; Hutchinson, A.L.; Wellings, H.R.; Power, K.A.; Robinson, L.E.; Monk, J.M. Integrated Immunomodulatory Mechanisms through which Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Obese Adipose Tissue Dysfunction. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1289.

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