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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1290; doi:10.3390/nu9121290

Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students

1
Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Sciences for Innovation, Yamaguchi University, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube 755-8505, Japan
2
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8540, Japan
3
Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract

We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na) excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years) from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students (n = 66) collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not (pfor trend < 0.05). A number of foods to which the students added seasonings were positively associated with Na excretion (pfor trend = 0.005). The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods (pfor trend < 0.05). Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students. View Full-Text
Keywords: convenience store; restaurants; secondary school students; sodium excretion; salt/soy sauce placed at dining tables convenience store; restaurants; secondary school students; sodium excretion; salt/soy sauce placed at dining tables
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Okuda, M.; Asakura, K.; Sasaki, S. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1290.

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