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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1288; doi:10.3390/nu9121288

Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

1
Nutritional Epidemiology Group (NEG), School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
2
Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Marmorvej 51, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract

The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS) but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19), mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC), had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40%) countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: national diet surveys; WHO European region; macronutrient intakes; micronutrient intakes; Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs); nutritional epidemiology national diet surveys; WHO European region; macronutrient intakes; micronutrient intakes; Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs); nutritional epidemiology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rippin, H.L.; Hutchinson, J.; Jewell, J.; Breda, J.J.; Cade, J.E. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1288.

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