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Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1093; doi:10.3390/nu9101093

Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports

1
Nursing Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
2
Research Group on Food and Nutrition (ALINUT), University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
3
Pharmacy faculty, University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
4
Evidence-Based Nutrition Network (RED-NuBE), Spanish Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AEND), 31006 Navarra, Spain
5
Quality, Safety, and Bioactivity of Plant Foods Group, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
6
Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine and Public Health and History of Science Health, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [286 KB, uploaded 11 October 2017]

Abstract

Introduction: The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. Methodology: A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. Results: 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Discussion: Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary supplements; doping; ergonutritional aids; WADA dietary supplements; doping; ergonutritional aids; WADA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez-Sanz, J.M.; Sospedra, I.; Ortiz, C.M.; Baladía, E.; Gil-Izquierdo, A.; Ortiz-Moncada, R. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1093.

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