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Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1088; doi:10.3390/nu9101088

A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Impact of Restaurant Menu Labeling on Calories and Nutrients (Ordered or Consumed) in U.S. Adults

1
Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
3
Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
4
Arizona Health Sciences Library, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
5
Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake, Trends, and Determinants)
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Abstract

A systematic review and meta-analysis determined the effect of restaurant menu labeling on calories and nutrients chosen in laboratory and away-from-home settings in U.S. adults. Cochrane-based criteria adherent, peer-reviewed study designs conducted and published in the English language from 1950 to 2014 were collected in 2015, analyzed in 2016, and used to evaluate the effect of nutrition labeling on calories and nutrients ordered or consumed. Before and after menu labeling outcomes were used to determine weighted mean differences in calories, saturated fat, total fat, carbohydrate, and sodium ordered/consumed which were pooled across studies using random effects modeling. Stratified analysis for laboratory and away-from-home settings were also completed. Menu labeling resulted in no significant change in reported calories ordered/consumed in studies with full criteria adherence, nor the 14 studies analyzed with ≤1 unmet criteria, nor for change in total ordered carbohydrate, fat, and saturated fat (three studies) or ordered or consumed sodium (four studies). A significant reduction of 115.2 calories ordered/consumed in laboratory settings was determined when analyses were stratified by study setting. Menu labeling away-from-home did not result in change in quantity or quality, specifically for carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, or sodium, of calories consumed among U.S. adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: menu labeling; food labeling; nutritional labeling; meta-analysis; energy; calories; nutrients; adults; point-of-purchase menu labeling; food labeling; nutritional labeling; meta-analysis; energy; calories; nutrients; adults; point-of-purchase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cantu-Jungles, T.M.; McCormack, L.A.; Slaven, J.E.; Slebodnik, M.; Eicher-Miller, H.A. A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Impact of Restaurant Menu Labeling on Calories and Nutrients (Ordered or Consumed) in U.S. Adults. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1088.

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