Choline and Choline alphoscerate Do Not Modulate Inflammatory Processes in the Rat Brain
AbstractCholine is involved in relevant neurochemical processes. In particular, it is the precursor and metabolite of acetylcholine (ACh). Choline is an essential component of different membrane phospholipids that are involved in intraneuronal signal transduction. On the other hand, cholinergic precursors are involved in ACh release and carry out a neuroprotective effect based on an anti-inflammatory action. Based on these findings, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of choline and choline precursor (Choline alphoscerate, GPC) in the modulation of inflammatory processes in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with 87 mg of choline chloride/kg/day (65 mg/kg/day of choline), and at choline-equivalent doses of GPC (150 mg/kg/day) and vehicle for two weeks. The brains were dissected and used for immunochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-1β, IL-1β; Interleukin-6 , IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, TNF-α) and endothelial adhesion molecules (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule, ICAM-1 and Vascular cell Adhesion Molecule, VCAM-1) were studied in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The results clearly demonstrated that treatment with choline or GPC did not affect the expression of the inflammatory markers in the different cerebral areas evaluated. Therefore, choline and GPC did not stimulate the inflammatory processes that we assessed in this study. View Full-Text
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Tayebati, S.K.; Martinelli, I.; Moruzzi, M.; Amenta, F.; Tomassoni, D. Choline and Choline alphoscerate Do Not Modulate Inflammatory Processes in the Rat Brain. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1084.
Tayebati SK, Martinelli I, Moruzzi M, Amenta F, Tomassoni D. Choline and Choline alphoscerate Do Not Modulate Inflammatory Processes in the Rat Brain. Nutrients. 2017; 9(10):1084.Chicago/Turabian Style
Tayebati, Seyed K.; Martinelli, Ilenia; Moruzzi, Michele; Amenta, Francesco; Tomassoni, Daniele. 2017. "Choline and Choline alphoscerate Do Not Modulate Inflammatory Processes in the Rat Brain." Nutrients 9, no. 10: 1084.