Next Article in Journal
Association between Serum 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Aggressive Prostate Cancer in African American Men
Next Article in Special Issue
Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity
Previous Article in Journal
SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 Expression Patterns in Medulloblastomas: Relevance to STAT3 Activation and Resveratrol-Suppressed STAT3 Signaling
Previous Article in Special Issue
Enzymatic Metabolism of Vitamin A in Developing Vertebrate Embryos
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 13; doi:10.3390/nu9010013

Hepatic Retinyl Ester Hydrolases and the Mobilization of Retinyl Ester Stores

Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Heinrichstraße 31, 8010 Graz, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1375 KB, uploaded 27 December 2016]   |  


For mammals, vitamin A (retinol and metabolites) is an essential micronutrient that is required for the maintenance of life. Mammals cannot synthesize vitamin A but have to obtain it from their diet. Resorbed dietary vitamin A is stored in large quantities in the form of retinyl esters (REs) in cytosolic lipid droplets of cells to ensure a constant supply of the body. The largest quantities of REs are stored in the liver, comprising around 80% of the body’s total vitamin A content. These hepatic vitamin A stores are known to be mobilized under times of insufficient dietary vitamin A intake but also under pathological conditions such as chronic alcohol consumption and different forms of liver diseases. The mobilization of REs requires the activity of RE hydrolases. It is astounding that despite their physiological significance little is known about their identities as well as about factors or stimuli which lead to their activation and consequently to the mobilization of hepatic RE stores. In this review, we focus on the recent advances for the understanding of hepatic RE hydrolases and discuss pathological conditions which lead to the mobilization of hepatic RE stores. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinyl ester hydrolase; liver; hepatocyte; hepatic stellate cells; lipid droplet; mobilization retinyl ester hydrolase; liver; hepatocyte; hepatic stellate cells; lipid droplet; mobilization

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Grumet, L.; Taschler, U.; Lass, A. Hepatic Retinyl Ester Hydrolases and the Mobilization of Retinyl Ester Stores. Nutrients 2017, 9, 13.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top