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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 12; doi:10.3390/nu9010012

Association between Serum 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Aggressive Prostate Cancer in African American Men

1
Cancer Prevention Fellow, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 6E402, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2
Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 6E402, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
3
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
4
Chief Medical Officer, Carney Hospital-Steward Health Systems, Dorchester, MA 02124, USA
5
Health Behavior Research Branch, Division of Cancer Control and Population Studies, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
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Abstract

African American men have higher incidence rates of aggressive prostate cancer, where high levels of calcium and serum vitamin D deficient levels play a role in the racial differences in incidence. In this study, we examined associations of serum vitamin D with aggressive prostate cancer to improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of aggressive disease in this racial cohort. From Howard University Hospital, 155 African American men with clinically-identified prostate cancer were identified; 46 aggressive cases, and 58 non-aggressive cases. Serum vitamin D was assessed from fasting blood samples, and total calcium intake was assessed using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms from three different loci were genotyped; rs731236, rs1544410, and rs11568820. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing aggressive to non-aggressive prostate cancer. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) significantly increased risk of aggressive disease (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.03–9.57, p-value = 0.04). Stratification by total calcium showed high calcium levels (≥800 mg/day) modified this association (OR: 7.3, 95% CI: 2.15–47.68, p-interaction = 0.03). Genetic variant rs11568820 appeared to increase the magnitude of association between deficient serum vitamin D and aggressive prostate cancer (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.12–11.75, p-value = 0.05). These findings suggest that high incidence of aggressive prostate cancer risk in African American men may be due in-part to deficient levels of serum vitamin D. Other factors, including genetics, should be considered for future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; rs11568820; calcium; African American men; aggressive prostate cancer; vitamin D receptor small nucleotide polymorphisms serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; rs11568820; calcium; African American men; aggressive prostate cancer; vitamin D receptor small nucleotide polymorphisms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nelson, S.M.; Batai, K.; Ahaghotu, C.; Agurs-Collins, T.; Kittles, R.A. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Aggressive Prostate Cancer in African American Men. Nutrients 2017, 9, 12.

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