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Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 549; doi:10.3390/nu8090549

Short- and Long-Term Effects of Wholegrain Oat Intake on Weight Management and Glucolipid Metabolism in Overweight Type-2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
2
Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK
3
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100191, China
4
Department of Clinical Nutrition, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
5
Department of Clinical Nutrition, International Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
6
The 153 Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Zhengzhou 450001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 7 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
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Abstract

Glycemic control and weight reduction are primary goals for the management of overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effective management cannot be achieved without an appropriate diet. Our study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of oat intake and develop a reasonable dietary plan for overweight T2DM patients. A randomized control trial, registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (Identification code: NCT01495052), was carried out among adult T2DM patients. A subgroup of 298 overweight subjects was selected and received a 30-day centralized intervention and 1-year free-living follow-up. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the following four groups. The usual care group (n = 60) received no intervention; the healthy diet group (n = 79) received a low-fat and high-fiber diet (“healthy diet”); the 50 g-oats group (n = 80) and 100 g-oats group (n = 79) received the “healthy diet” with the same amount of cereals replaced by 50 g and 100 g oats respectively. Anthropometric, blood glycemic and lipid variables were measured. For the 30-day intervention, significant differences in the changes of FPG (fasting plasma glucose), PPG (postprandial plasma glucose), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TC (total cholesterol), TG (total triglycerides), and LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were observed among the four groups. Compared to the healthy diet group, the 50 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (mean difference (MD): −1.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.03, −0.05) and TC (MD: −0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.47, −0.01); the 100 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (MD: −1.48 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.57, −0.39), HOMA-IR (MD: −1.77 mU·mol/L2; 95% CI: −3.49, −0.05), TC (MD: −0.33 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.56, −0.10) and LDL-c (MD: −0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.41, −0.03). In the 1-year follow-up, greater effects in reducing weight (MD: −0.89 kg; 95% CI: −1.56, −0.22), HbA1c (MD: −0.64%; 95% CI: −1.19, −0.09) and TG (MD: −0.70 mmol/L; 95% CI: −1.11, −0.29) were observed in the 100 g-oats group. In conclusion, short- and long-term oat intake had significant effects on controlling hyperglycemia, lowering blood lipid and reducing weight. Our study provided some supportive evidence for recommending oat as a good whole grain selection for overweight diabetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; obesity; whole grain; oats; fiber type 2 diabetes; obesity; whole grain; oats; fiber
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Cai, X.; Ma, X.; Jing, L.; Gu, J.; Bao, L.; Li, J.; Xu, M.; Zhang, Z.; Li, Y. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Wholegrain Oat Intake on Weight Management and Glucolipid Metabolism in Overweight Type-2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial. Nutrients 2016, 8, 549.

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