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Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 378; doi:10.3390/nu8060378

Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs

1
Department of Nutritional and Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria
2
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria
3
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
4
Sight and Life, Kaiseraugst 4303, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 March 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2110 KB, uploaded 21 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. View Full-Text
Keywords: palm oil; lipid oxidation; vitamin A; vitamin E; hexanal palm oil; lipid oxidation; vitamin A; vitamin E; hexanal
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pignitter, M.; Hernler, N.; Zaunschirm, M.; Kienesberger, J.; Somoza, M.M.; Kraemer, K.; Somoza, V. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs. Nutrients 2016, 8, 378.

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