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Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 349; doi:10.3390/nu8060349

Retinoic Acid as a Modulator of T Cell Immunity

1
Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7800003, Chile
2
Fundacion Ciencia & Vida, Santiago 7780272, Chile
3
Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago 8370146, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 April 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 13 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [791 KB, uploaded 13 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Vitamin A, a generic designation for an array of organic molecules that includes retinal, retinol and retinoic acid, is an essential nutrient needed in a wide array of aspects including the proper functioning of the visual system, maintenance of cell function and differentiation, epithelial surface integrity, erythrocyte production, reproduction, and normal immune function. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide and is associated with defects in adaptive immunity. Reports from epidemiological studies, clinical trials and experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that vitamin A plays a central role in immunity and that its deficiency is the cause of broad immune alterations including decreased humoral and cellular responses, inadequate immune regulation, weak response to vaccines and poor lymphoid organ development. In this review, we will examine the role of vitamin A in immunity and focus on several aspects of T cell biology such as T helper cell differentiation, function and homing, as well as lymphoid organ development. Further, we will provide an overview of the effects of vitamin A deficiency in the adaptive immune responses and how retinoic acid, through its effect on T cells can fine-tune the balance between tolerance and immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinoic acid; vitamin A; T cell; oral tolerance; homing retinoic acid; vitamin A; T cell; oral tolerance; homing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bono, M.R.; Tejon, G.; Flores-Santibañez, F.; Fernandez, D.; Rosemblatt, M.; Sauma, D. Retinoic Acid as a Modulator of T Cell Immunity. Nutrients 2016, 8, 349.

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