9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages
AbstractCholesterol efflux from macrophages is a key process in reverse cholesterol transport and, therefore, might inhibit atherogenesis. 9-cis-β-carotene (9-cis-βc) is a precursor for 9-cis-retinoic-acid (9-cis-RA), which regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our objective was to assess whether 9-cis-βc increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and induces the expression of cholesterol transporters. Enrichment of a mouse diet with βc from the alga Dunaliella led to βc accumulation in peritoneal macrophages. 9-cis-βc increased the mRNA levels of CYP26B1, an enzyme that regulates RA cellular levels, indicating the formation of RA from βc in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, 9-cis-βc, as well as all-trans-βc, significantly increased cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 50% in RAW264.7 macrophages. Likewise, food fortification with 9-cis-βc augmented cholesterol efflux from macrophages ex vivo. 9-cis-βc increased both the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE) and the mRNA level of ABCG1. Our study shows, for the first time, that 9-cis-βc from the diet accumulates in peritoneal macrophages and increases cholesterol efflux to HDL. These effects might be ascribed to transcriptional induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and APOE. These results highlight the beneficial effect of βc in inhibition of atherosclerosis by improving cholesterol efflux from macrophages. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Bechor, S.; Zolberg Relevy, N.; Harari, A.; Almog, T.; Kamari, Y.; Ben-Amotz, A.; Harats, D.; Shaish, A. 9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages. Nutrients 2016, 8, 435.
Bechor S, Zolberg Relevy N, Harari A, Almog T, Kamari Y, Ben-Amotz A, Harats D, Shaish A. 9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages. Nutrients. 2016; 8(7):435.Chicago/Turabian Style
Bechor, Sapir; Zolberg Relevy, Noa; Harari, Ayelet; Almog, Tal; Kamari, Yehuda; Ben-Amotz, Ami; Harats, Dror; Shaish, Aviv. 2016. "9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages." Nutrients 8, no. 7: 435.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.