Next Article in Journal
Walnut Polyphenol Extract Attenuates Immunotoxicity Induced by 4-Pentylphenol and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in Murine Splenic Lymphocyte
Previous Article in Journal
Quercetin Impacts Expression of Metabolism- and Obesity-Associated Genes in SGBS Adipocytes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 286; doi:10.3390/nu8050286

Inositol Hexaphosphate and Inositol Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver in BALB/c Mice

1
Department of Public Health, Qingdao University Medical College, Qingdao 266021, China
2
School of Nursing, Qingdao University Medical College, Qingdao 266021, China
3
Basic Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266021, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2722 KB, uploaded 12 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol (Ins), naturally occurring carbohydrates present in most mammals and plants, inhibit the growth of numerous cancers both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we first examined the anti-metastatic effects of IP6 and Ins using a liver metastasis model of colorectal cancer (CRC) in BALB/c mice. CT-26 cells were injected into the splenic capsule of 48 BALB/c mice. The mice were then randomly divided into four groups: IP6, Ins, IP6 + Ins and normal saline control (n = 12 per group). IP6 and/or Ins (80 mg/kg each, 0.2 mL/day) were injected into the gastrointestinal tracts of the mice on the second day after surgery. All mice were sacrificed after 20 days, and the tumor inhibition rates were determined. The results demonstrated that the tumor weights of liver metastases and the tumor inhibition rates were reduced in the experimental groups compared to the control group and that treatment with the combination of IP6 and Ins resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth than treatment with either compound alone. These findings suggest that IP6 and Ins prevent the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in mice by altering expression of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin; the adhesion factor receptor integrin-β1; the proteolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9; and the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta in the tumor metastasis microenvironment. In conclusion, IP6 and Ins inhibited the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in BALB/c mice, and the effect of their combined application was significantly greater than the effect of either compound alone. This evidence supports further testing of the combined application of IP6 and Ins for the prevention of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in clinical studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: inositol hexaphosphate; inositol; metastasis; ECM; angiogenesis inositol hexaphosphate; inositol; metastasis; ECM; angiogenesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fu, M.; Song, Y.; Wen, Z.; Lu, X.; Cui, L. Inositol Hexaphosphate and Inositol Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver in BALB/c Mice. Nutrients 2016, 8, 286.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top