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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 279; doi:10.3390/nu8050279

Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

1
Department of Neonatology and Division of Translational Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
2
Department of Surgery, Feihe Nutrition Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [222 KB, uploaded 11 May 2016]

Abstract

Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk; infant formula; cow’s milk allergy; cow’s milk alternatives breast milk; infant formula; cow’s milk allergy; cow’s milk alternatives
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Martin, C.R.; Ling, P.-R.; Blackburn, G.L. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula. Nutrients 2016, 8, 279.

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