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Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 186; doi:10.3390/nu8040186

Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

1
Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit, Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy
2
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy
3
Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, Verona 37134, Italy
4
Geriatric Unit, “Guglielmo da Saliceto” Hospital, AUSL Piacenza, Via Taverna 49, Piacenza 29121, Italy
5
Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Unit, Santa Chiara Hospital, Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Largo Medaglie d’Oro 9, Trento 38122, Italy
6
Parkinson Institute, Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale “Gaetano Pini”–C.T.O., Via Bignami 1, Milan 20126, Italy
7
Geriatric Unit, Ospedale G.B. Morgagni–L. Pierantoni, Via Carlo Forlanini 34, Forlì 47121, Italy
8
Clinical Geriatrics Unit, Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older People)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [310 KB, uploaded 29 March 2016]

Abstract

Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; omega-3; whey; casein; geriatric; inflammatory markers vitamin D; omega-3; whey; casein; geriatric; inflammatory markers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ticinesi, A.; Meschi, T.; Lauretani, F.; Felis, G.; Franchi, F.; Pedrolli, C.; Barichella, M.; Benati, G.; Di Nuzzo, S.; Ceda, G.P.; Maggio, M. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins. Nutrients 2016, 8, 186.

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