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Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 189; doi:10.3390/nu8040189

The Performance of Five Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Prediction Equations against Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Estimating Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass in an Adult Australian Population

1
NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence: Frailty Trans-disciplinary Research to Achieve Healthy Ageing, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
2
Adelaide Geriatrics Training and Research with Aged Care (G-TRAC) Center, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
3
Aged and Extended Care Service, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, South Australia, SA 5000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older People)
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Abstract

Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) is a diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) offers a bedside approach to measure ASM but the performance of BIA prediction equations (PE) varies with ethnicities and body composition. We aim to validate the performance of five PEs in estimating ASM against estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We recruited 195 healthy adult Australians and ASM was measured using single-frequency BIA. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the predictive accuracy of ASM as determined by BIA against DXA. Precision (root mean square error (RMSE)) and bias (mean error (ME)) were calculated according to the method of Sheiner and Beal. Four PEs (except that by Kim) showed ASM values that correlated strongly with ASMDXA (r ranging from 0.96 to 0.97, p < 0.001). The Sergi equation performed the best with the lowest ME of −1.09 kg (CI: −0.84–−1.34, p < 0.001) and the RMSE was 2.09 kg (CI: 1.72–2.47). In men, the Kyle equation performed better with the lowest ME (−0.32 kg (CI: −0.66–0.02) and RMSE (1.54 kg (CI: 1.14–1.93)). The Sergi equation is applicable in adult Australians (Caucasian) whereas the Kyle equation can be considered in males. The need remains to validate PEs in other ethnicities and to develop equations suitable for multi-frequency BIA. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; bioelectrical impedance; muscle; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry sarcopenia; bioelectrical impedance; muscle; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, S.C.Y.; Powell, A.; Khow, K.S.F.; Visvanathan, R. The Performance of Five Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Prediction Equations against Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Estimating Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass in an Adult Australian Population. Nutrients 2016, 8, 189.

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