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Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 179; doi:10.3390/nu8040179

Fructose Containing Sugars at Normal Levels of Consumption Do Not Effect Adversely Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

1
Obesity Research Center, School of Health Sciences, Emory & Henry College, 601 Radio Hill Rd, Marion, VA 24354, USA
2
Rippe Lifestyle Institute of Florida, 215 Celebration Place, Celebration, FL 34747, USA
3
Rippe Lifestyle Institute, 21 North Quinsigamond Avenue, Shrewsbury, MA 01545, USA
4
Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
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Abstract

The objective of the current study was to explore our hypothesis that average consumption of fructose and fructose containing sugars would not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A randomized, double blind, parallel group study was conducted where 267 individuals with BMI between 23 and 35 kg/m2 consumed low fat sugar sweetened milk, daily for ten weeks as part of usual weight-maintenance diet. One group consumed 18% of calories from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), another group consumed 18% of calories from sucrose, a third group consumed 9% of calories from fructose, and the fourth group consumed 9% of calories from glucose. There was a small change in waist circumference (80.9 ± 9.5 vs. 81.5 ± 9.5 cm) in the entire cohort, as well as in total cholesterol (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.0 mmol/L, p < 0.01), triglycerides (TGs) (11.5 ± 6.4 vs. 12.6 ± 8.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01), and systolic (109.2 ± 10.2 vs. 106.1 ± 10.4 mmHg, p < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (69.8 ± 8.7 vs. 68.1 ± 9.7 mmHg, p < 0.01). The effects of commonly consumed sugars on components of the MetS and CVD risk factors are minimal, mixed and not clinically significant. View Full-Text
Keywords: fructose; high fructose corn syrup; sucrose; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease fructose; high fructose corn syrup; sucrose; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Angelopoulos, T.J.; Lowndes, J.; Sinnett, S.; Rippe, J.M. Fructose Containing Sugars at Normal Levels of Consumption Do Not Effect Adversely Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients 2016, 8, 179.

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