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Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 181; doi:10.3390/nu8040181

Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults

1
Health & Exercise Sciences Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
2
Suntory Beverage Food Europe, 2 Longwalk Road, Stockley Park, Uxbridge UB11 1BA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein, Exercise and Muscle Health in an Ageing Population)
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Abstract

Skeletal muscle is critical for human health. Protein feeding, alongside resistance exercise, is a potent stimulus for muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and is a key factor that regulates skeletal muscle mass (SMM). The main purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the latest evidence for optimising the amino acid or protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion for increasing or preserving SMM in healthy young and healthy older adults. We used a systematic search strategy of PubMed and Web of Science to retrieve all articles related to this review objective. In summary, our findings support the notion that protein guidelines for increasing or preserving SMM are more complex than simply recommending a total daily amount of protein. Instead, multifactorial interactions between protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion, alongside exercise, influence the stimulation of MPS, and thus should be considered in the context of protein recommendations for regulating SMM. To conclude, on the basis of currently available scientific literature, protein recommendations for optimising SMM should be tailored to the population or context of interest, with consideration given to age and resting/post resistance exercise conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: muscle hypertrophy; muscle protein synthesis; amino acid availability; protein source; protein dose; protein timing; protein pattern; macronutrient coingestion muscle hypertrophy; muscle protein synthesis; amino acid availability; protein source; protein dose; protein timing; protein pattern; macronutrient coingestion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Witard, O.C.; Wardle, S.L.; Macnaughton, L.S.; Hodgson, A.B.; Tipton, K.D. Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults. Nutrients 2016, 8, 181.

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