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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 177; doi:10.3390/nu8030177

Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

1
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), C/General Álvarez de Castro 20, 1 pta, Madrid 28010, Spain
2
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, C/Irunlarrea 1, Pamplona 31008, Spain
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Granada. Campus de la Salud, Avda. del Conocimiento, Armilla, Granada 18100, Spain
4
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Technical University of Madrid, C/Martín Fierro 7, Madrid 28040, Spain
5
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, Madrid 28040, Spain
6
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, C/Doctor Pasteur s/n Trasera del Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas 35016, Spain
7
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, Crta. Boadilla Km 53, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid 28668, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
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Abstract

Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain”) cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old). Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%). Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%), mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23%) ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6%) and meat and meat products (22.0%). Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70%) combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%). The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: macronutrient intake; dietary protein; dietary fat; carbohydrate intake; dietary fat quality sources; ANIBES study macronutrient intake; dietary protein; dietary fat; carbohydrate intake; dietary fat quality sources; ANIBES study
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ruiz, E.; Ávila, J.M.; Valero, T.; del Pozo, S.; Rodriguez, P.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J.; Gil, Á.; González-Gross, M.; Ortega, R.M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Varela-Moreiras, G. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 177.

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