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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 159; doi:10.3390/nu8030159

Fruit Intake and Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Elderly Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

1
Royal Perth Hospital, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth 6000, Western Australia, Australia
2
Centre for Kidney Research, Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney 2145, New South Wales, Australia
3
School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, New South Wales, Australia
4
Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital Unit, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Western Australia, Australia
5
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth 6009, Western Australia, Australia
6
Department of Renal Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth 6009, Western Australia, Australia
7
Park Nicollet Osteoporosis Centre and HealthPartners Institute, HealthPartners, Minneapolis, MN 55416, USA
8
Division of Health Policy and Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
9
Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide 5042, South Australia, Australia
10
Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew Senior Life, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
11
School of Biomedical Sciences and Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University Western Australia, Perth 6102, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. There is a consistent inverse relationship between fruit intake with CVD events and mortality in cross-sectional and prospective observational studies, but the relationship of fruit intake with measurements of atherosclerosis in humans is less clear. Nutritional effects on abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), a marker for subclinical intimal and medial atherosclerotic vascular disease, have not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship of total and individual fruit (apple, pear, orange and other citrus, and banana) intake with AAC, scored between 0 and 24. The current study assessed baseline data for a cohort of 1052 women over 70 years of age who completed both a food frequency questionnaire assessing fruit intake, and underwent AAC measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. AAC scores were significantly negatively correlated with total fruit and apple intakes (p < 0.05), but not with pear, orange or banana intakes (p > 0.25). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, each standard deviation (SD; 50 g/day) increase in apple intake was associated with a 24% lower odds of having severe AAC (AAC score >5) (odd ratio OR): 0.76 (0.62, 0.93), p = 0.009). Total and other individual fruit intake were not associated with increased odds of having severe AAC. Apple but not total or other fruit intake is independently negatively associated with AAC in older women. View Full-Text
Keywords: apples; fruit; abdominal aortic calcification; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease apples; fruit; abdominal aortic calcification; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bondonno, N.P.; Lewis, J.R.; Prince, R.L.; Lim, W.H.; Wong, G.; Schousboe, J.T.; Woodman, R.J.; Kiel, D.P.; Bondonno, C.P.; Ward, N.C.; Croft, K.D.; Hodgson, J.M. Fruit Intake and Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Elderly Women: A Prospective Cohort Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 159.

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