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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 158; doi:10.3390/nu8030158

Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

1
U1153 National Institute of Health and Medical Research, U1125 National Institute for Agricultural Research, National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts, Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team (EREN), Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 13 University, Paris 7 and 5, Bobigny 93017 Cedex, France
2
Department of Chronic Diseases and Injuries, French Institute for Health Surveillance, Nutritional Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 13 University, Bobigny 93017 Cedex, France
3
School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Bruxelles B-1070, Belgium
4
National Institute for Agricultural Research, UR 1303 ALISS, Ivry sur Seine 94200, France
5
Lille 3 University—EA CeRies, Villeneuve-d’Ascq 59650, France
6
University of Strasburg, UMR LIVE 7362, Strasbourg 67000, France
7
Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1100DD, The Netherlands
8
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo 0316, Norway
9
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University of Applied Sciences, Oslo 0130, Norway
10
Public Health section, School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DA, UK
11
Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1100 DD, The Netherlands
12
Department of Public Health, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny 93300, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
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Abstract

Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: socioeconomic position; nutrient intake; education; income; occupation; inequalities socioeconomic position; nutrient intake; education; income; occupation; inequalities
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Si Hassen, W.; Castetbon, K.; Cardon, P.; Enaux, C.; Nicolaou, M.; Lien, N.; Terragni, L.; Holdsworth, M.; Stronks, K.; Hercberg, S.; Méjean, C. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 158.

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