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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 123; doi:10.3390/nu8030123

Impact of Genotype on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes

Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Norwich Medical School, BCRE, University of East Anglia (UEA), James Watson Road, Norwich NR4 7UQ, UK
Received: 24 January 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [802 KB, uploaded 2 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

At a population level, cardioprotective and cognitive actions of the fish oil (FO) derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been extensively demonstrated. In addition to dietary intake, which is limited for many individuals, EPA and DHA status is dependent on the efficiency of their biosynthesis from α-linolenic acid. Gender and common gene variants have been identified as influencing the rate-limiting desaturase and elongase enzymes. Response to a particular intake or status is also highly heterogeneous and likely influenced by genetic variants which impact on EPA and DHA metabolism and tissue partitioning, transcription factor activity, or physiological end-point regulation. Here, available literature relating genotype to tissue LC n-3 PUFA status and response to FO intervention is considered. It is concluded that the available evidence is relatively limited, with much of the variability unexplained, though APOE and FADS genotypes are emerging as being important. Although genotype × LC n-3 PUFA interactions have been described for a number of phenotypes, few have been confirmed in independent studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the genetic, physiological and behavioural modulators of EPA and DHA status and response to intervention is needed to allow refinement of current dietary LC n-3 PUFA recommendations and stratification of advice to “vulnerable” and responsive subgroups. View Full-Text
Keywords: eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA; docosahexaenoic acid; DHA; long chain n-3 PUFA; genotype; APOE; FADS eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA; docosahexaenoic acid; DHA; long chain n-3 PUFA; genotype; APOE; FADS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Minihane, A.M. Impact of Genotype on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes. Nutrients 2016, 8, 123.

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