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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 312; doi:10.3390/nu8050312

A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

1
Institute of Reproductive and Child Health/Ministry of Health Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xueyuan Rd., Beijing 100191, China
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xueyuan Rd., Beijing 100191, China
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Weihai Maternal and Child Health Hospital, 51 Guangming Rd, Weihai 264200, China
4
Department of Pediatrics, Yueyang Maternal and Child Health Hospital, 693 Baling Middle Rd., Yueyang 414000, China
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical School, 41 Linyin Rd., Baotou 014000, China
6
Wyeth Nutrition Science Center, 582 Wuzhong Rd., Shanghai 201103, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [242 KB, uploaded 20 May 2016]

Abstract

We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA concentrations in blood and breast milk in Chinese lactating women, suggesting that the tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, DIET, is a valid tool for the assessment of DHA dietary intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; lactating women; food frequency questionnaire; breast milk; plasma; erythrocyte; correlation docosahexaenoic acid; lactating women; food frequency questionnaire; breast milk; plasma; erythrocyte; correlation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, M.-J.; Li, H.-T.; Yu, L.-X.; Xu, G.-S.; Ge, H.; Wang, L.-L.; Zhang, Y.-L.; Zhou, Y.-B.; Li, Y.; Bai, M.-X.; Liu, J.-M. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China. Nutrients 2016, 8, 312.

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