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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 681; doi:10.3390/nu8110681

A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

1
College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Medical Nutrition Education, 984045 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4045, USA
2
College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 984375 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4375, USA
3
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
4
Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 981205 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-1205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [899 KB, uploaded 28 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; breast milk; infant feeding; infant formula; breast milk substitutes; human milk antioxidants; breast milk; infant feeding; infant formula; breast milk substitutes; human milk
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hanson, C.; Lyden, E.; Furtado, J.; Van Ormer, M.; Anderson-Berry, A. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas. Nutrients 2016, 8, 681.

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