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Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 592; doi:10.3390/nu8100592

Seasonal Epidemiology of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among Healthy Adults Living in Rural and Urban Areas in Mongolia

1
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Connors Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
National Institute of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar 16081, Mongolia
4
Departments of Epidemiology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
5
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
6
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 18 September 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
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Abstract

Many factors put Mongolians at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Despite low levels observed in Mongolian children and pregnant women, there are few data published on the vitamin D status of non-pregnant adults. Between summer 2011 and winter 2013, paired summer and winter blood samples were collected from 320 healthy men and women (20–58 years) living in eight Mongolian provinces. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 22.5 ng/mL (95% CI: 14.5, 32.5) in summer and 7.7 ng/mL (95% CI: 4.6, 10.8) in winter, with a distribution (<10/10–20/20–30/≥30 ng/mL) of 3.1%/39.3%/39.6%/17.9% in summer and 80.1%/19.5%/0.3%/0.0% in winter. Residents of the capital, Ulaanbaatar, had lower levels in both seasons than any other region, whereas residents of the Gobi desert had the highest. In summer, indoor workers had significantly lower levels than outdoor workers (−2.3 ng/mL; 95% CI: −4.1, −5.7) while levels in males exceeded those in females (4.0 ng/mL; 95% CI: 2.3, 5.7). Effects of region, occupation, and sex were also significant in multivariable regression. In conclusion, Mongolian adults had extremely low serum 25(OH)D, particularly in winter, when 80.1% had concentrations below 10 ng/mL. These results indicate a need for effective vitamin D interventions for the Mongolian adult population, particularly among women and residents of Ulaanbaatar. View Full-Text
Keywords: 25(OH)D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; calciferol; food fortification; hypovitaminosis D; Mongolia; nutritional epidemiology; sex differences; nutrient supplementation; vitamin D deficiency 25(OH)D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; calciferol; food fortification; hypovitaminosis D; Mongolia; nutritional epidemiology; sex differences; nutrient supplementation; vitamin D deficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bromage, S.; Rich-Edwards, J.W.; Tselmen, D.; Baylin, A.; Houghton, L.A.; Baasanjav, N.; Ganmaa, D. Seasonal Epidemiology of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among Healthy Adults Living in Rural and Urban Areas in Mongolia. Nutrients 2016, 8, 592.

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