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Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 22; doi:10.3390/nu8010022

Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

1
School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Dr, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia
2
School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009, Australia
3
School of Medicine and Pharmacology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009, Australia
4
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, West Perth WA 6008, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products and Human Health)
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Abstract

Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy; regular fat; reduced fat; low fat; saturated fat; dairy fat; metabolic; adolescent; blood pressure; cholesterol; Raine study dairy; regular fat; reduced fat; low fat; saturated fat; dairy fat; metabolic; adolescent; blood pressure; cholesterol; Raine study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

O’Sullivan, T.A.; Bremner, A.P.; Mori, T.A.; Beilin, L.J.; Wilson, C.; Hafekost, K.; Ambrosini, G.L.; Huang, R.C.; Oddy, W.H. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health. Nutrients 2016, 8, 22.

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