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Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 2; doi:10.3390/nu8010002

Individuals with Metabolically Healthy Overweight/Obesity Have Higher Fat Utilization than Metabolically Unhealthy Individuals

1
Department of Medical and Surgical Science, University Magna Grecia, Catanzaro 88100, Italy
2
Clinical Institute “Beato Matteo”, Vigevano 27029, Italy
3
Department of Health Science, University Magna Grecia, Catanzaro 88100, Italy
4
Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 40530, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 4 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolically Healthy Obesity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [211 KB, uploaded 4 January 2016]

Abstract

The mechanisms underlying the change in phenotype from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a difference in fasting fat utilization exists between overweight/obese individuals with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile and those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether there is an association between fasting fat utilization and insulin resistance. In this cross-sectional study, 172 overweight/obese individuals underwent a nutritional assessment. Those with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or antidiabetic treatment were considered to be diabetics. If at least three of the NCEP criteria were present, they had Metabolic Syndrome, while those with less criteria were considered to be healthy overweight/obese. An indirect calorimetry was performed to estimate Respiratory Quotient, an index of nutrient utilization. A lower Respiratory Quotient (i.e., higher fat utilization) was found in healthy overweight/obese individuals than in those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes (0.85 ± 0.05; 0.87 ± 0.06; 0.88 ± 0.05 respectively, p = 0.04). The univariate and multivariable analysis showed a positive association between the Respiratory Quotient and HOMA-IR (slope in statistic (B) = 0.004; β = 0.42; p = 0.005; 95% Confidence interval = 0.001–0.006). In this study, we find, for the first time, that the fasting Respiratory Quotient is significantly lower (fat utilization is higher) in individuals who are metabolically healthy overweight/obese than in those with metabolically unhealthy obesity. In addition, we demonstrated the association between fat utilization and HOMA-IR, an insulin resistance index. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; nutrition assessment; fat utilization; Metabolic Syndrome; metabolically unhealthy Obesity; diabetes obesity; nutrition assessment; fat utilization; Metabolic Syndrome; metabolically unhealthy Obesity; diabetes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pujia, A.; Gazzaruso, C.; Ferro, Y.; Mazza, E.; Maurotti, S.; Russo, C.; Lazzaro, V.; Romeo, S.; Montalcini, T. Individuals with Metabolically Healthy Overweight/Obesity Have Higher Fat Utilization than Metabolically Unhealthy Individuals. Nutrients 2016, 8, 2.

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