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Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 4; doi:10.3390/nu8010004

Plasma Free Amino Acid Responses to Intraduodenal Whey Protein, and Relationships with Insulin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Energy Intake in Lean Healthy Men

1
NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, The University of Adelaide Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide 5000, Australia
2
CSIRO Food and Nutrition, PO Box 10041 Adelaide BC, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia
3
School of Pharmacology and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 4 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products and Human Health)
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Abstract

This study determined the effects of increasing loads of intraduodenal (ID) dairy protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with serum insulin, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and energy intake. Sixteen healthy men had concentrations of AAs, GLP-1 and insulin measured in response to 60-min ID infusions of hydrolysed whey protein administered, in double-blinded and randomised order, at 2.1 (P2.1), 6.3 (P6.3) or 12.5 (P12.5) kJ/min (encompassing the range of nutrient emptying from the stomach), or saline control (C). Energy intake was quantified immediately afterwards. Compared with C, the concentrations of 19/20 AAs, the exception being cysteine, were increased, and this was dependent on the protein load. The relationship between AA concentrations in the infusions and the area under the curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0–60 min) of each AA profile was strong for essential AAs (R2 range, 0.61–0.67), but more variable for non-essential (0.02–0.54) and conditional (0.006–0.64) AAs. The AUC0–60 min for each AA was correlated directly with the AUC0–60 min of insulin (R2 range 0.3–0.6), GLP-1 (0.2–0.6) and energy intake (0.09–0.3) (p < 0.05, for all), with the strongest correlations being for branched-chain AAs, lysine, methionine and tyrosine. These findings indicate that ID whey protein infused at loads encompassing the normal range of gastric emptying increases plasma concentrations of 19/20 AAs in a load-dependent manner, and provide novel information on the close relationships between the essential AAs, leucine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, and the conditionally-essential AA, tyrosine, with energy intake, insulin and GLP-1. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy; whey protein hydrolysate; insulinotropic response; glycemic control; appetite regulation; human dairy; whey protein hydrolysate; insulinotropic response; glycemic control; appetite regulation; human
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Luscombe-Marsh, N.D.; Hutchison, A.T.; Soenen, S.; Steinert, R.E.; Clifton, P.M.; Horowitz, M.; Feinle-Bisset, C. Plasma Free Amino Acid Responses to Intraduodenal Whey Protein, and Relationships with Insulin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Energy Intake in Lean Healthy Men. Nutrients 2016, 8, 4.

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