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Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 6000-6015; doi:10.3390/nu7075267

Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

1
Regional Program for PhD in Biotechnology, FCQB, University of Sinaloa, Culiacán, Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
2
Nutrition Sciences Academic Unit, University of Sinaloa, Culiacán, Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 31 May 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten Related Disorders: People Shall not Live on Bread Alone)
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Abstract

The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI): 11.9% (9.9–13.5) and 7.8 (6.4–9.4) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7–4.8), wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38–1.37); celiac disease 0.08% (0.01–0.45), and NCGS 0.97% (0.55–1.68). Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49–1.5), and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p < 0.05). Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice. View Full-Text
Keywords: prevalence; adverse reactions; gluten-free diet; gluten-related disorders prevalence; adverse reactions; gluten-free diet; gluten-related disorders
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ontiveros, N.; López-Gallardo, J.A.; Vergara-Jiménez, M.J.; Cabrera-Chávez, F. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6000-6015.

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