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Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4240-4270; doi:10.3390/nu7064240

Modulation of the Immune Response to Respiratory Viruses by Vitamin D

Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AB, UK
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Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 17 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
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Abstract

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be independently associated with increased risk of viral acute respiratory infection (ARI) in a number of observational studies, and meta-analysis of clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of ARI has demonstrated protective effects. Several cellular studies have investigated the effects of vitamin D metabolites on immune responses to respiratory viruses, but syntheses of these reports are lacking. Scope: In this article, we review the literature reporting results of in vitro experiments investigating immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D metabolites in human respiratory epithelial cells infected with respiratory viruses. Key findings: Vitamin D metabolites do not consistently influence replication or clearance of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza A virus in human respiratory epithelial cell culture, although they do modulate expression and secretion of type 1 interferon, chemokines including CXCL8 and CXCL10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-6. Future research: More studies are needed to clarify the effects of vitamin D metabolites on respiratory virus-induced expression of cell surface markers mediating viral entry and bacterial adhesion to respiratory epithelial cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; respiratory viruses; antiviral immunity vitamin D; respiratory viruses; antiviral immunity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Greiller, C.L.; Martineau, A.R. Modulation of the Immune Response to Respiratory Viruses by Vitamin D. Nutrients 2015, 7, 4240-4270.

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