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Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4124-4138; doi:10.3390/nu7064124

Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Study

1
Department of Emergency, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Servicio Navarro de Salud, Pamplona 31008, Spain
2
The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (RD 06/0045), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid 28029, Spain
3
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Madrid 28029, Spain
4
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008, Spain
5
Department of Cardiology, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Servicio Navarro de Salud, Pamplona 31008, Spain
6
Human Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus 43201, Spain
7
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia 46071, Spain
8
South Carolina Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208 USA
9
Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, Barcelona 08003, Spain
10
Lipid Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain
11
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga 29010, Spain
12
Department of Internal Medicine Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain
13
Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville 41007, Spain
14
Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria 01009, Spain
15
Institute of Health Sciences (IUNICS), University of Balearic Islands, and Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca 07120, Spain
16
Research Institut of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas 35001, Spain
17
Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona 08907, Spain
18
Department of Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
The complete list of PREDIMED investigators can be found at the end of the manuscript.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and CVD)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [536 KB, uploaded 29 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

Previous studies have reported an association between a more pro-inflammatory diet profile and various chronic metabolic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was used to assess the inflammatory potential of nutrients and foods in the context of a dietary pattern. We prospectively examined the association between the DII and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD: myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study including 7216 high-risk participants. The DII was computed based on a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of CVD risk were computed across quartiles of the DII where the lowest (most anti-inflammatory) quartile is the referent. Risk increased across the quartiles (i.e., with increasing inflammatory potential): HRquartile2 = 1.42 (95%CI = 0.97–2.09); HRquartile3 = 1.85 (1.27–2.71); and HRquartile4 = 1.73 (1.15–2.60). When fit as continuous the multiple-adjusted hazard ratio for each additional standard deviation of the DII was 1.22 (1.06–1.40). Our results provide direct prospective evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular clinical events. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary inflammatory index; cardiovascular disease; PREDIMED; inflammation dietary inflammatory index; cardiovascular disease; PREDIMED; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia-Arellano, A.; Ramallal, R.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Corella, D.; Shivappa, N.; Schröder, H.; Hébert, J.R.; Ros, E.; Gómez-Garcia, E.; Estruch, R.; Lapetra, J.; Arós, F.; Fiol, M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Pintó, X.; Babio, N.; González, J.I.; Fitó, M.; Martínez, J.A.; Martínez-González, M.A.; investigators, T.P. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Study. Nutrients 2015, 7, 4124-4138.

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