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Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4107-4123; doi:10.3390/nu7064107

Blueberries Improve Endothelial Function, but Not Blood Pressure, in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

1
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
2
Center for the Study of Botanicals and Metabolic Syndrome, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
3
Baton Rouge VA Outpatient Clinic, Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System, 7968 Essen Park Avenue, Baton Rouge, LA 70809, USA
4
Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19348, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2015 / Revised: 8 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
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Abstract

Blueberry consumption has been shown to have various health benefits in humans. However, little is known about the effect of blueberry consumption on blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in humans. The present study investigated the role of blueberry consumption on modifying blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In addition, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity (secondary measurements) were also assessed. A double-blind and placebo-controlled study was conducted in 44 adults (blueberry, n = 23; and placebo, n = 21). They were randomized to receive a blueberry or placebo smoothie twice daily for six weeks. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The blood pressure and insulin sensitivity did not differ between the blueberry and placebo groups. However, the mean change in resting endothelial function, expressed as reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was improved significantly more in the group consuming the blueberries versus the placebo group (p = 0.024). Even after adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., the percent body fat and gender, the blueberry group still had a greater improvement in endothelial function when compared to their counterpart (RHI; 0.32 ± 0.13 versus −0.33 ± 0.14; p = 0.0023). In conclusion, daily dietary consumption of blueberries did not improve blood pressure, but improved (i.e., increased) endothelial function over six weeks in subjects with metabolic syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: blueberries; endothelial function; endothelial dysfunction; prediabetes; hypertension; cardiovascular risk factors blueberries; endothelial function; endothelial dysfunction; prediabetes; hypertension; cardiovascular risk factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stull, A.J.; Cash, K.C.; Champagne, C.M.; Gupta, A.K.; Boston, R.; Beyl, R.A.; Johnson, W.D.; Cefalu, W.T. Blueberries Improve Endothelial Function, but Not Blood Pressure, in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Nutrients 2015, 7, 4107-4123.

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