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Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4139-4153; doi:10.3390/nu7064139

The Role of Vitamin D in Reproductive Health—A Trojan Horse or the Golden Fleece?

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Starynkiewicza Sq. 1/3, 02-015 Warsaw, Poland
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Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 16 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
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Abstract

In the last decade, vitamin D was in the spotlight in many fields of research. Despite numerous publications, its influence on reproductive health remains ambiguous. This paper presents an up-to-date review of current knowledge concerning the role of cholecalciferol in human reproduction. It covers various infertility issues, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, myoma-induced infertility, male infertility, premature ovary failure and in vitro fertilization techniques. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as serum concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol of less than 50 nmol/L, is commonly noted more frequently than only in fertility clinic patients. It is a global trend that is observed in all age groups. The results of original publications dated up to 2015 have been summarized and discussed in a critical manner. Most experts agree that vitamin D supplementation is a necessity, particularly in women suffering from obesity, insulin resistance or small ovarian reserve, as well as in men with oligo- and asthenozoospermia if serum concentration should fall below 50 nmol/L (normal range up to 125 nmol/L). High concentration of vitamin D and its metabolites in decidua during the 1st trimester suggests its important role in the implantation process and a local immunological embryo-protection. On the other hand, evidence-based research did not prove a significant difference so far in ovulation stimulation or embryo development depending on vitamin D level. In one of the publications, it was also found that vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) has a molecular similarity to anti-sperm antibodies, and another one concluded that both low (<50 nmol/L) and high (>125 nmol/L) concentration of vitamin D are associated with decreased number and quality of spermatozoa in semen. Vitamin D is definitely not a Trojan Horse in reproductive health, since there were no adverse effects reported for vitamin D intake of up to 10,000 IU/day, but to proclaim it the Golden Fleece, more evidence is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; infertility; polycystic ovary syndrome; in vitro fertilization; male infertility; endometriosis infertility; myoma infertility; premature ovary failure; ART vitamin D; infertility; polycystic ovary syndrome; in vitro fertilization; male infertility; endometriosis infertility; myoma infertility; premature ovary failure; ART
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dabrowski, F.A.; Grzechocinska, B.; Wielgos, M. The Role of Vitamin D in Reproductive Health—A Trojan Horse or the Golden Fleece? Nutrients 2015, 7, 4139-4153.

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