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Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3078-3093; doi:10.3390/nu7053078

Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

1
School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia
2
Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia
3
School of Exercise and Nutrition Science, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216, Australia
4
School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia
5
Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Hunter Medical Research Institute, John Hunter Hospital, Level 3, Endocrinology, Locked Bag 1, Hunter Region Mail Centre, New South Wales 2310, Australia
6
Charles Perkins Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 16 April 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [230 KB, uploaded 24 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP), which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E%) polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045), E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03) and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04) were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy) and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy) intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal; pregnancy; dietary intake; macronutrient; blood pressure; systolic; child; protein; diet; nutrition maternal; pregnancy; dietary intake; macronutrient; blood pressure; systolic; child; protein; diet; nutrition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Blumfield, M.L.; Nowson, C.; Hure, A.J.; Smith, R.; Simpson, S.J.; Raubenheimer, D.; MacDonald-Wicks, L.; Collins, C.E. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years. Nutrients 2015, 7, 3078-3093.

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