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Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2539-2561; doi:10.3390/nu7042539

A High-Fat Diet Containing Lard Accelerates Prostate Cancer Progression and Reduces Survival Rate in Mice: Possible Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Cytokines

1
WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Korea
2
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702, Korea
3
Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270, Korea
4
Department of Smart Food and Drugs, School of Food and Life Science, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 26 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
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Abstract

To examine the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) containing lard on prostate cancer development and progression and its underlying mechanisms, transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) and TRAMP-C2 allograft models, as well as in vitro culture models, were employed. In TRAMP mice, HFD feeding increased the incidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma and decreased that of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate, which was accompanied by increased expression of proteins associated with proliferation and angiogenesis. HFD feeding also led to increased metastasis and decreased survival rate in TRAMP mice. In the allograft model, HFD increased solid tumor growth, the expression of proteins related to proliferation/angiogenesis, the number of lipid vacuoles in tumor tissues, and levels of several cytokines in serum and adipose tissue. In vitro results revealed that adipose tissue-conditioned media from HFD-fed mice stimulated the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and angiogenesis compared to those from control-diet-fed mice. These results indicate that the increase of adipose tissue-derived soluble factors by HFD feeding plays a role in the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer via endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. These results provide evidence that a HFD containing lard increases prostate cancer development and progression, thereby reducing the survival rate. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-fat diet; prostate cancer; survival rate; TRAMP; cytokines high-fat diet; prostate cancer; survival rate; TRAMP; cytokines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cho, H.J.; Kwon, G.T.; Park, H.; Song, H.; Lee, K.W.; Kim, J.-I.; Park, J.H.Y. A High-Fat Diet Containing Lard Accelerates Prostate Cancer Progression and Reduces Survival Rate in Mice: Possible Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Cytokines. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2539-2561.

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