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Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1657-1671; doi:10.3390/nu7031657

The Effects of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Systemic Immune Responses of Gluten-Sensitive Rhesus Macaques

1
Division of Microbiology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA
2
Division of Veterinary Resources, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA
3
Division of Comparative Pathology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA
4
Arcadia Biosciences Inc., Seattle, WA 98119, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 6 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten Related Disorders: People Shall not Live on Bread Alone)
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Abstract

Celiac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten) barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS) and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading—by co-administration of additional treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac; gluten; barley; gluten-free; NCGS; AGA; T cell; enteritis celiac; gluten; barley; gluten-free; NCGS; AGA; T cell; enteritis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sestak, K.; Thwin, H.; Dufour, J.; Aye, P.P.; Liu, D.X.; Moehs, C.P. The Effects of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Systemic Immune Responses of Gluten-Sensitive Rhesus Macaques. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1657-1671.

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