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Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1644-1656; doi:10.3390/nu7031644

Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brazil
2
Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK
3
Department of Pathology Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 5 March 2015
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Abstract

Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish oil; omega-3; fructose; fasting; refeeding; liver fish oil; omega-3; fructose; fasting; refeeding; liver
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

de Castro, G.S.; Cardoso, J.F.R.; Calder, P.C.; Jordão, A.A.; Vannucchi, H. Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1644-1656.

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