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Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9825-9833; doi:10.3390/nu7125500

Internal Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Following a Meal-Replacement Regimen vs. Comprehensive Lifestyle Changes in Obese Subjects

1
Department for Nutrition, Institute for Sports and Sports Science, University of Freiburg, Schwarzwaldstr. 175, 79117 Freiburg, Germany
2
Department of Exercise and Sports Medicine, Centre for Internal Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetterstr. 175, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
3
Department of Radiology—Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Breisacher Straße 60a, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 1 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction)
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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a meal-replacement regimen vs. comprehensive lifestyle changes in overweight or obese subjects on intra-abdominal fat stores (Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Forty-two obese men (n = 18) and women (n = 24) (age 49 ± 8 years; weight 96.3 ± 12.1 kg; BMI 32.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were selected for this randomized parallel-group design investigation. Subjects in the lifestyle group (LS-G; n = 22) received dietary counselling sessions and instructions how to increase physical activity. In the meal replacement group (MR-G; n = 20) meals were replaced by a low-calorie drink high in soy protein. After six months, subjects in the LS-G lost 8.88 ± 6.24 kg and subjects in the MR-G lost 7.1 ± 2.33 kg; p < 0.01 for changes within groups; no significant differences were found between the groups. Lean body mass remained constant in both intervention groups. MRI analyses showed that internal fat was significantly reduced in both groups to a comparable amount; the higher fat loss in the LS-G in the abdominal area was due to a higher reduction in subcutaneous fat. Both interventions significantly reduced components of the cardiometabolic risk profile and leptin levels. The decrease in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the MR-G. In conclusion, both interventions significantly reduced body weight, total fat mass and internal abdominal fat while preserving lean body mass. The reduction in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the meal replacement group suggesting an additional effect of soy protein components. View Full-Text
Keywords: meal replacement; visceral fat; metabolic syndrome; lifestyle intervention meal replacement; visceral fat; metabolic syndrome; lifestyle intervention
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

König, D.; Zdzieblik, D.; Deibert, P.; Berg, A.; Gollhofer, A.; Büchert, M. Internal Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Following a Meal-Replacement Regimen vs. Comprehensive Lifestyle Changes in Obese Subjects. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9825-9833.

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