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Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10020-10031; doi:10.3390/nu7125515

Gliadin-Specific T-Cells Mobilized in the Peripheral Blood of Coeliac Patients by Short Oral Gluten Challenge: Clinical Applications

1
Institute of Protein Biochemistry-CNR, Via Pietro Castellino 111, Naples 80131, Italy
2
Department of Translational Medical Science (DISMET), Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Via S Pansini 5, Naples 80131, Italy
3
European Laboratory for the Investigation of Food-Induced Diseases (ELFID), University of Naples Federico II, Via S Pansini 5, Naples 80131, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten Related Disorders: People Shall not Live on Bread Alone)
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Abstract

Celiac disease (CD) is a common lifelong food intolerance triggered by dietary gluten affecting 1% of the general population. Gliadin-specific T-cell lines and T-cell clones obtained from intestinal biopsies have provided great support in the investigation of immuno-pathogenesis of CD. In the early 2000 a new in vivo, less invasive, approach was established aimed to evaluate the adaptive gliadin-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood of celiac patients on a gluten free diet. In fact, it has been demonstrated that three days of ingestion of wheat-containing food induces the mobilization of memory T lymphocytes reactive against gliadin from gut-associated lymphoid tissue into peripheral blood of CD patients. Such antigen-specific T-cells releasing interferon-γ can be transiently detected by using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays or by flow cytometry tetramer technology. This paper discusses the suitability of this in vivo tool to investigate the repertoire of gluten pathogenic peptides, to support CD diagnosis, and to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies. A systematic review of all potential applications of short oral gluten challenge is provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; gluten challenge; interferon-γ; ELISPOT celiac disease; gluten challenge; interferon-γ; ELISPOT
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Picascia, S.; Mandile, R.; Auricchio, R.; Troncone, R.; Gianfrani, C. Gliadin-Specific T-Cells Mobilized in the Peripheral Blood of Coeliac Patients by Short Oral Gluten Challenge: Clinical Applications. Nutrients 2015, 7, 10020-10031.

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