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Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 9416-9439; doi:10.3390/nu7115477

Impact of Nutrition on Cerebral Circulation and Cognition in the Metabolic Syndrome

1
Department of Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands
2
Department of Anatomy & Geriatric Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 12 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
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Abstract

The increasing prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), defined as the clustering of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia, appears to be driving the global epidemics cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nutrition has a major impact on MetS and plays an important role in the prevention, development, and treatment of its features. Structural and functional alterations in the vasculature, associated with MetS, might form the link between MetS and the increased risk of developing CVD and T2DM. Not only does the peripheral vasculature seem to be affected, but the syndrome has a profound impact on the cerebral circulation and thence brain structure as well. Furthermore, strong associations are shown with stroke, cognitive impairment, and dementia. In this review the impact of nutrition on the individual components of MetS, the effects of MetS on peripheral and cerebral vasculature, and its consequences for brain structure and function will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome; nutrition; obesity; dyslipidemia; hypertension; hyperglycemia; cerebral circulation; cognition; dementia Metabolic Syndrome; nutrition; obesity; dyslipidemia; hypertension; hyperglycemia; cerebral circulation; cognition; dementia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mellendijk, L.; Wiesmann, M.; Kiliaan, A.J. Impact of Nutrition on Cerebral Circulation and Cognition in the Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9416-9439.

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