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Nutrients 2014, 6(6), 2360-2375; doi:10.3390/nu6062360

Estimation of 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion Using Spot Urine Samples

1
Cardiovascular Center, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, 27 Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi 410-773, Korea
2
Clinical Trial Center, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, 27 Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi 410-773, Korea
3
Division of Nephrology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, 27 Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi 410-773, Korea
4
Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, 27 Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi 410-773, Korea
5
Cardiovascular Center, Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital, 87 Dongdae-ro, Seokjang-dong, Gyeongju-si, Gyeongbuk 780-350, Korea
6
Department of Cardiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 77 Sakju-ro, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do 200-704, Korea
7
Department of Cardiology, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, 222 Banpodae-ro, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Korea
8
Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 29 Saemunan-ro, Jongro-Ku, Seoul 110-746, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt and Health: A Public Health Issue)
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Abstract

The present study evaluated the reliability of equations using spot urine (SU) samples in the estimation of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (24-HUNa). Equations estimating 24-HUNa from SU samples were derived from first-morning SU of 101 participants (52.4 ± 11.1 years, range 24–70 years). Equations developed by us and other investigators were validated with SU samples from a separate group of participants (n = 224, 51.0 ± 10.9 years, range 24–70 years). Linear, quadratic, and cubic equations were derived from first-morning SU samples because these samples had a sodium/creatinine ratio having the highest correlation coefficient for 24-HUNa/creatinine ratio (r = 0.728, p < 0.001). In the validation group, the estimated 24-HUNa showed significant correlations with measured 24-HUNa values. The estimated 24-HUNa by the linear, quadratic, and cubic equations developed from our study were not significantly different from measured 24-HUNa, while estimated 24-HUNa by previously developed equations were significantly different from measured 24-HUNa values. The limits of agreement between measured and estimated 24-HUNa by six equations exceeded 100 mmol/24-hour in the Bland-Altman analysis. All equations showed a tendency of under- or over-estimation of 24-HUNa, depending on the level of measured 24-HUNa. Estimation of 24-HUNa from single SU by equations as tested in the present study was found to be inadequate for the estimation of an individual’s 24-HUNa. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium intake; spot urine; 24-hour collection sodium intake; spot urine; 24-hour collection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rhee, M.-Y.; Kim, J.-H.; Shin, S.-J.; Gu, N.; Nah, D.-Y.; Hong, K.-S.; Cho, E.-J.; Sung, K.-C. Estimation of 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion Using Spot Urine Samples. Nutrients 2014, 6, 2360-2375.

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